The Adaptive Mechanism of Plants to Iron Deficiency via Iron Uptake, Transport, and Homeostasis
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Iron is an essential element for plant growth and development. While abundant in soil, the available Fe in soil is limited. In this regard, plants have evolved a series of mechanisms for efficient iron uptake, allowing plants to better adapt to iron deficient conditions. These mechanisms include iron acquisition from soil, iron transport from roots to shoots, and iron storage in cells. The mobilization of Fe in plants often occurs via chelating with phytosiderophores, citrate, nicotianamine,
... ineic acid, or in the form of free iron ions. Recent work further elucidates that these genes' response to iron deficiency are tightly controlled at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels to maintain iron homeostasis. Moreover, increasing evidences shed light on certain factors that are identified to be interconnected and integrated to adjust iron deficiency. In this review, we highlight the molecular and physiological bases of iron acquisition from soil to plants and transport mechanisms for tolerating iron deficiency in dicotyledonous plants and rice.