COVID-19 in Children and Neonates: A Comprehensive Review Article
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Context: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a new public health crisis, posing a great threat to the people all around the world. We aimed to review the articles on COVID-19 in pediatric population to help physicians and other healthcare workers understand the importance of detecting silent disease carriers in this age group and stop further transmission to other healthy individuals and manage symptomatic patients based on the latest recommendations. Methods: We searched databases
... databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Medline and reviewed 70 articles from December 2019 to mid-July 2020. Relevant articles about COVID-19 in children were included. Results: According to the latest reports, 1% - 5% of infected patients were under 19 years old. Death in this age group was rare but it can occur in children with severe disease. The overall course of disease -mainly pulmonary involvement- of the infected children tend to be milder than adults. This may be related to both host factors and exposure. The lab tests and computed tomography (CT) scan findings are nonspecific and milder compared to those in older ages. The cornerstone of COVID-19 management in pediatric group is supportive care. Of note, there is not any approved specific drug for treatment of children affected by COVID-19. Conclusions: COVID-19 disease characteristics in children are not yet fully established, which poses a significant problem for pediatric medical specialists. It should be considered that most children are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Critical cases, although uncommon, can occur especially in children with underlying diseases.