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Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as refrigerators, air conditioners, and electric water heaters, can be aggregated and used to deliver power systems services. The effectiveness of control strategies depends on the level of infrastructure and communications. This paper explores the use of TCLs for load following when measured state information is not available in real time. We use Markov Chain models to describe the temperature state evolution of populations of TCLs, and Kalmandoi:10.1109/hicss.2012.545 dblp:conf/hicss/MathieuC12 fatcat:b3b6oirnzjc5lmzy66zurcqfee