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The quantum adversary method is a versatile method for proving lower bounds on quantum algorithms. It yields tight bounds for many computational problems, is robust in having many equivalent formulations, and has natural connections to classical lower bounds. A further nice property of the adversary method is that it behaves very well with respect to composition of functions. We generalize the adversary method to include costs--each bit of the input can be given an arbitrary positive costarXiv:quant-ph/0509067v3 fatcat:a3zgceeasjfghkpqr2grrnpdqa