[CII] observations of H2molecular layers in transition clouds

T. Velusamy, W. D. Langer, J. L. Pineda, P. F. Goldsmith, D. Li, H. W. Yorke
2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics  
We present the first results on the diffuse transition clouds observed in [CII] line emission at 158 microns (1.9 THz) towards Galactic longitudes near 340deg (5 LOSs) and 20deg (11 LOSs) as part of the GOT C+ survey. Out of the total 146 [CII] velocity components detected by profile fitting we identify 53 as diffuse molecular clouds with associated $^{12}$CO emission but without $^{13}$CO emission and characterized by A$_V$ < 5 mag. We estimate the fraction of the [CII] emission in the diffuse
more » ... sion in the diffuse HI layer in each cloud and then determine the [CII] emitted from the molecular layers in the cloud. We show that the excess [CII] intensities detected in a few clouds is indicative of a thick H$_2$ layer around the CO core. The wide range of clouds in our sample with thin to thick H$_2$ layers suggests that these are at various evolutionary states characterized by the formation of H$_2$ and CO layers from HI and C$^+$, respectively. In about 30% of the clouds the H$_2$ column densities ("dark gas") traced by the [CII] is 50% or more than that traced by $^{12}$CO emission. On the average about 25% of the total H$_2$ in these clouds is in an H$_2$ layer which is not traced by CO. We use the HI, [CII], and $^{12}$CO intensities in each cloud along with simple chemical models to obtain constraints on the FUV fields and cosmic ray ionization rates.
doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201015091 fatcat:aotvpchqkvbglatqxjfuteuwdu