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A method for simulating delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) of global navigation satellite system signals reflected from land surfaces with heterogeneous terrain is developed from first principles. The method follows previous work for ocean DDMs in the geometric optics limit of the Kirchhoff approximation. Unlike the ocean method, however, where surface heights are assumed to be random with homogeneous statistics, this method decomposes the surface heights into a deterministic part obtained from adoi:10.1109/jstars.2020.2981570 fatcat:wt3x5kdh7fbsfnoksjay2rywta