From descriptive connectome to mechanistic connectome: Generative modeling in functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis

Guoshi Li, Pew-Thian Yap
2022 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
As a newly emerging field, connectomics has greatly advanced our understanding of the wiring diagram and organizational features of the human brain. Generative modeling-based connectome analysis, in particular, plays a vital role in deciphering the neural mechanisms of cognitive functions in health and dysfunction in diseases. Here we review the foundation and development of major generative modeling approaches for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and survey their applications to
more » ... nitive or clinical neuroscience problems. We argue that conventional structural and functional connectivity (FC) analysis alone is not sufficient to reveal the complex circuit interactions underlying observed neuroimaging data and should be supplemented with generative modeling-based effective connectivity and simulation, a fruitful practice that we term "mechanistic connectome." The transformation from descriptive connectome to mechanistic connectome will open up promising avenues to gain mechanistic insights into the delicate operating principles of the human brain and their potential impairments in diseases, which facilitates the development of effective personalized treatments to curb neurological and psychiatric disorders.
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2022.940842 pmid:36061504 pmcid:PMC9428697 fatcat:oflaen765rdlljyyuhpsumcayu