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In this paper, we propose a new measure of horizontal equity that overcomes many of the shortcomings of previous proposed measures. Our starting point is the observation that a wellbehaved social welfare function need not evaluate "global" (vertical equity) differences in aftertax income using the same weights it applies to "local" (horizontal equity) differences, even though this constraint has been applied in the past. Following work on the structure of individual preferences, we show that adoi:10.1257/00028280260344650 fatcat:uu5dqzsvcvf6ll4xctalev7woi