High-Performance Back-Illuminated Three-Dimensional Stacked Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Implemented in 45-nm CMOS Technology
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
We present a high-performance back-illuminated three-dimensional stacked single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD), which is implemented in 45-nm CMOS technology for the first time. The SPAD is based on a P + /Deep N-well junction with a circular shape, for which N-well is intentionally excluded to achieve a wide depletion region, thus enabling lower tunneling noise and better timing jitter as well as a higher photon detection efficiency and a wider spectrum. In order to prevent premature edge
... remature edge breakdown, a P-type guard ring is formed at the edge of the junction, and it is optimized to achieve a wider photon-sensitive area. In addition, metal-1 is used as a light reflector to improve the detection efficiency further in backside illumination. With the optimized 3-D stacked 45-nm CMOS technology for back-illuminated image sensors, the proposed SPAD achieves a dark count rate of 55.4 cps/µm 2 and a photon detection probability of 31.8% at 600 nm and over 5% in the 420-920 nm wavelength range. The jitter is 107.7 ps full width at half-maximum with negligible exponential diffusion tail at 2.5 V excess bias voltage at room temperature. To the best of our knowledge, these are the best results ever reported for any back-illuminated 3-D stacked SPAD technologies. Index Terms-Avalanche photodiode (APD), CMOS image sensor, detector, Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD), image sensor, integrated optics device, integrated photonics, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), low light level, optical sensor, photodiode, photomultiplier, photon counting, photon timing, semiconductor, sensor, silicon, single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD), single-photon imaging, standard CMOS technology, three-dimensional fabrication, three-dimensional vision.