Informational Space of Meaning for Scientific Texts
In Natural Language Processing, automatic extracting the meaning of texts constitutes an important problem. Our focus is the computational analysis of meaning of short scientific texts (abstracts or brief reports). In this paper, a vector space model is developed for quantifying the meaning of words and texts. We introduce the Meaning Space, in which the meaning of a word is represented by a vector of Relative Information Gain (RIG) about the subject categories that the text belongs to, which
... n be obtained from observing the word in the text. This new approach is applied to construct the Meaning Space based on Leicester Scientific Corpus (LSC) and Leicester Scientific Dictionary-Core (LScDC). The LSC is a scientific corpus of 1,673,350 abstracts and the LScDC is a scientific dictionary which words are extracted from the LSC. Each text in the LSC belongs to at least one of 252 subject categories of Web of Science (WoS). These categories are used in construction of vectors of information gains. The Meaning Space is described and statistically analysed for the LSC with the LScDC. The usefulness of the proposed representation model is evaluated through top-ranked words in each category. The most informative n words are ordered. We demonstrated that RIG-based word ranking is much more useful than ranking based on raw word frequency in determining the science-specific meaning and importance of a word. The proposed model based on RIG is shown to have ability to stand out topic-specific words in categories. The most informative words are presented for 252 categories. The new scientific dictionary and the 103,998 x 252 Word-Category RIG Matrix are available online. Analysis of the Meaning Space provides us with a tool to further explore quantifying the meaning of a text using more complex and context-dependent meaning models that use co-occurrence of words and their combinations.