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Fixing a software error requires understanding its root cause. In this paper, we introduce "causality traces", crafted execution traces augmented with the information needed to reconstruct the causal chain from the root cause of a bug to an execution error. We propose an approach and a tool, called Casper, based on code transformation, which dynamically constructs causality traces for null dereference errors. The core idea of Casper is to replace nulls with special objects, called "ghosts",doi:10.1016/j.jss.2016.08.062 fatcat:s2en3oykrbagrnkv22hktzfdnq