In Vitro Evaluation of the Individual and Combined Cytotoxic and Estrogenic Effects of Zearalenone, Its Reduced Metabolites, Alternariol, and Genistein

Adrienn Balázs, Zelma Faisal, Rita Csepregi, Tamás Kőszegi, Balázs Kriszt, István Szabó, Miklós Poór
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of filamentous fungi. Previous studies demonstrated the co-occurrence of Fusarium and Alternaria toxins, including zearalenone (ZEN), ZEN metabolites, and alternariol (AOH). These xenoestrogenic mycotoxins appear in soy-based meals and dietary supplements, resulting in the co-exposure to ZEN and AOH with the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN). In this study, the cytotoxic and estrogenic effects of ZEN, reduced ZEN metabolites, AOH, and GEN are examined to evaluate
more » ... ir individual and combined impacts. Our results demonstrate that reduced ZEN metabolites, AOH, and GEN can aggravate ZEN-induced toxicity; in addition, the compounds tested exerted mostly synergism or additive combined effects regarding cytotoxicity and/or estrogenicity. Therefore, these observations underline the importance and the considerable risk of mycotoxin co-exposure and the combined effects of mycoestrogens with phytoestrogens.
doi:10.3390/ijms22126281 fatcat:wxz4ahbzzbef3b4l46a6f3u4zq