The Effect of Real-World Interference on CNN Feature Extraction and Machine Learning Classification of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Carolyn J. Swinney, John C. Woods
2021 Aerospace (Basel)  
Small unmanned aerial systems (UASs) present many potential solutions and enhancements to industry today but equally pose a significant security challenge. We only need to look at the levels of disruption caused by UASs at airports in recent years. The accuracy of UAS detection and classification systems based on radio frequency (RF) signals can be hindered by other interfering signals present in the same frequency band, such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi devices. In this paper, we evaluate the effect
more » ... of real-world interference from Bluetooth and Wi-Fi signals concurrently on convolutional neural network (CNN) feature extraction and machine learning classification of UASs. We assess multiple UASs that operate using different transmission systems: Wi-Fi, Lightbridge 2.0, OcuSync 1.0, OcuSync 2.0 and the recently released OcuSync 3.0. We consider 7 popular UASs, evaluating 2 class UAS detection, 8 class UAS type classification and 21 class UAS flight mode classification. Our results show that the process of CNN feature extraction using transfer learning and machine learning classification is fairly robust in the presence of real-world interference. We also show that UASs that are operating using the same transmission system can be distinguished. In the presence of interference from both Bluetooth and Wi-Fi signals, our results show 100% accuracy for UAV detection (2 classes), 98.1% (+/−0.4%) for UAV type classification (8 classes) and 95.4% (+/−0.3%) for UAV flight mode classification (21 classes).
doi:10.3390/aerospace8070179 doaj:999bce1da57d43668b6e0c8d43f9b141 fatcat:p63y2ggihbauldu6wxapsc4n24