Fusion of Machine Learning and Privacy Preserving for Secure Facial Expression Recognition

Asad Ullah, Jing Wang, M. Shahid Anwar, Arshad Ahmad, Shah Nazir, Habib Ullah Khan, Zesong Fei, Amir Anees
2021 Security and Communication Networks  
The interest in Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is increasing day by day due to its practical and potential applications, such as human physiological interaction diagnosis and mental disease detection. This area has received much attention from the research community in recent years and achieved remarkable results; however, a significant improvement is required in spatial problems. This research work presents a novel framework and proposes an effective and robust solution for FER under an
more » ... for FER under an unconstrained environment; it also helps us to classify facial images in the client/server model along with preserving privacy. There are a lot of cryptography techniques available but they are computationally expensive; on the other side, we have implemented a lightweight method capable of ensuring secure communication with the help of randomization. Initially, we perform preprocessing techniques to encounter the unconstrained environment. Face detection is performed for the removal of excessive background and it detects the face in the real-world environment. Data augmentation is for the insufficient data regime. A dual-enhanced capsule network is used to handle the spatial problem. The traditional capsule networks are unable to sufficiently extract the features, as the distance varies greatly between facial features. Therefore, the proposed network is capable of spatial transformation due to the action unit aware mechanism and thus forwards the most desiring features for dynamic routing between capsules. The squashing function is used for classification purposes. Simple classification is performed through a single party, whereas we also implemented the client/server model with privacy measurements. Both parties do not trust each other, as they do not know the input of each other. We have elaborated that the effectiveness of our method remains unchanged by preserving privacy by validating the results on four popular and versatile databases that outperform all the homomorphic cryptographic techniques.
doi:10.1155/2021/6673992 fatcat:r27f6gh6k5d5raawzc4hhq2coe