A Novel Dimensionally-Decomposed Router for On-Chip Communication in 3D Architectures [44] [chapter]

Chrysostomos Nicopoulos, Vijaykrishnan Narayanan, Chita R. Das
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="Springer Netherlands"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/buexlaapefetfatuvtspxuwmve" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering</a> </i> &nbsp;
Much like multi-storey buildings in densely packed metropolises, three-dimensional (3D) chip structures are envisioned as a viable solution to skyrocketing transistor densities and burgeoning die sizes in multi-core architectures. Partitioning a larger die into smaller segments and then stacking them in a 3D fashion can significantly reduce latency and energy consumption. Such benefits emanate from the notion that inter-wafer distances are negligible compared to intra-wafer distances. This
more &raquo; ... bute substantially reduces global wiring length in 3D chips. The work in this paper integrates the increasingly popular idea of packet-based Networks-on-Chip (NoC) into a 3D setting. While NoCs have been studied extensively in the 2D realm, the microarchitectural ramifications of moving into the third dimension have yet to be fully explored. This paper presents a detailed exploration of inter-strata communication architectures in 3D NoCs. Three design options are investigated; a simple busbased inter-wafer connection, a hop-by-hop standard 3D design, and a full 3D crossbar implementation. In this context, we propose a novel partially-connected 3D crossbar structure, called the 3D Dimensionally-Decomposed (DimDe) Router, which provides a good tradeoff between circuit complexity and performance benefits. Simulation results using (a) a stand-alone cycle-accurate 3D NoC simulator running synthetic workloads, and (b) a hybrid 3D NoC/cache simulation environment running real commercial and scientific benchmarks, indicate that the proposed DimDe design provides latency and throughput improvements of over 20% on average over the other 3D architectures, while remaining within 5% of the full 3D crossbar performance. Furthermore, based on synthesized hardware implementations in 90 nm technology, the DimDe architecture outperforms all other designs − including the full 3D crossbar − by an average of 26% in terms of the Energy-Delay Product (EDP).
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