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The thermal loadings in the pipe wall of the residual heat removal systems in pressurized water reactors can be generally regarded as biaxial fatigue loadings, which may lead to multidirectional thermal fatigue cracks on the inner surface of the pipe wall. In this paper, the orientation of the critical plane defined by maximum damage under biaxial fatigue loading conditions are investigated by analytical and computational approaches. The analytical solutions of the critical plane orientationdoi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.12.625 fatcat:6btqpdyyqjeizj3aaffpd2dnr4