Bioavailability and Solubility of Different Calcium-Salts as a Basis for Calcium Enrichment of Beverages
Food and Nutrition Sciences
When usual calcium consumption patterns were analysed most people in the U.S. and Europe consume less than the recommended daily allowance. Supplements and fortified foods offer alternative and additional sources of calcium to traditional food. Calcium carbonate is the most common supplement but it is less soluble in water and, therefore, not suitable for enrichment of beverages. New organic calcium salts have a better solubility but less is known about their bioavailability. In the present
... In the present study, we assessed the solubility and bioavailability of the new organic calcium salts, calcium lactate citrate and calcium lactate malate, in comparison to the traditional supplements, calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate. Design: Randomized, single-blind, four way cross-over study comparing single doses of 500 mg calcium in the form of four different calcium-salts. Subjects were advised to consume 25 µg vitamin D3 daily two weeks prior to the start of the study and during the whole study period. Subjects: 20 healthy young men, Methods: Blood samples were drawn immediately before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after ingestion of the calcium preparation. Concentration of total calcium and intact parathyroid hormone were measured in the serum. Urine was collected at baseline and during the intervals 0-3, 3-6, 9-15 and 15-24 h and excretion of calcium, sodium and creatinine was examined. Results: The tested new salts were easily water soluble, significantly better than calcium gluconate. Calcium carbonate is almost insoluble. The bioavailability of the four different calcium salts was found to be almost identical. The maximum total serum calcium increased by 7.6 % two hours after ingestion calcium lactate citrate, by 7.4 % after calcium lactate malate, by 5.5 % after calcium carbonate, and by 5.8 % after calcium gluconate. Intact parathyroid hormone concentration showed the expected depression for calcium lactate citrate, calcium lactate malate and calcium carbonate, whereas the serum level was significantly higher after ingestion of calcium gluconate. Conclusion: Given an almost equivalent bioavailability of the four tested calcium salts, we conclude that the new salts calcium lactate citrate and calcium lactate malate are well suited for fortification of beverages and thus to increase the average daily calcium intake.