TMAO, a seafood-derived molecule, produces diuresis and reduces mortality in heart failure rats
There is an ongoing debate whether trimethylamine-oxide (TMAO), a molecule present in seafood and a derivate of microbiota metabolism, is beneficial or harmful for the circulatory system. Interestingly, deep-water animals accumulate TMAO that protects proteins such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) against high hydrostatic pressure. We hypothesized that TMAO may benefit the circulatory system by protecting cardiac LDH exposed to hydrostatic stress (HS) produced by contracting heart. Methods and
... art. Methods and Results: Male, 6-week-old, Sprague-Dawley (SD, n=40) and Spontaneously-Hypertensive-Heart-Failure (SHHF n=18) rats were divided into either Water or TMAO oral treatment. After 56 weeks, half of Water and TMAO SD rats were given isoprenaline (ISO) to produce catecholamine stress. In vitro, LDH with or without TMAO was exposed to HS (changes in pressure 0-250mmHg x 280min-1) and was evaluated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. After 58 weeks of the treatment survival was 100% in SD-Water, SD-TMAO, ISO-TMAO and 90% in ISO-Water. In SHHF-Water survival was 66% vs 100% in SHHF-TMAO. In general, TMAO-treated rats showed higher diuresis and natriuresis. In comparison to SHHF-Water, SHHF-TMAO showed significantly lower diastolic arterial blood pressure, plasma NT-proBNP and expression of angiotensinogen and AT1 receptors in the heart. In separate experiments, intravenous TMAO but not vehicle or urea significantly increased diuresis in SD. In vitro, exposure of LDH to HS with or without TMAO did not affect the protein structure. Conclusions: TMAO reduces mortality in SHHF rats that is associated with diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects. HS produced by the contracting heart is neutral for cardiac LDH structure.