A Pesticide Residues Insight on Honeybees, Bumblebees and Olive Oil after Pesticidal Applications against the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
In 2017 and 2018, a field survey was initiated on Greek olive orchards to investigate the attractiveness of bait spray applications and the impact of cover and bait sprays applied against the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), on the honeybee, Apis mellifera L. and bumblebees Bombus terrestris, by investigating the pesticides' residual prevalence. Bee colonies were evenly distributed in three sites located on coastal areas of Western Crete and visited almost weekly between
... most weekly between July and October. Samples collected, were analyzed using existing or developed-optimized liquid and gas chromatographic methods. In bee samples, concentrations varied from 0.0013 to 2.3 mg/kg for dimethoate, from 0.0013–0.059 mg/kg for its metabolite omethoate, and from 0.0035 to 0.63 mg/kg regarding the pyrethroids, β-cyfluthrin and λ-cyhalothrin. In one bee sample dimethoate concentration exceeded both acute oral and contact median lethal dose (LD50). Residue findings in bees, along with verified olive oil residues corroborated that those insecticides had been applied in the olive orchards and transferred to bees. The possibility of non-target effects of the bait sprays to the bees, as well as the impact of the contaminated olive to the bees are discussed.