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Incubation of human keratinocytes with nanomolar concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin leads to irreversible depletion of cellular ATP. The toxin forms hexamers in the target cell membranes, and rapid transmembrane flux of K+, Na+, and 86Rb+ is observed. Unexpectedly, pores formed in keratinocytes through application of low but lethal doses of alpha-toxin appeared to be considerably smaller than those formed in erythrocyte membranes. They permitted neither rapid influx of Ca2+ orpmid:8225571 pmcid:PMC281271 fatcat:xxvar5qi5nevzir5uvcxmkj5wq