Structure determination of oligomeric alkannin and shikonin derivatives

Apostolos Spyros, Andreana N. Assimopoulou, Vassilios P. Papageorgiou
<span title="">2005</span> <i title="Wiley"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="" style="color: black;">Biomedical chromotography</a> </i> &nbsp;
Monomeric alkannin and shikonin (A/S) are potent pharmaceutical substances with a wide spectrum of biological activity and comprise the active ingredients for several pharmaceutical preparations. Therefore, the determination of the impurities, degradation products or byproducts in alkannin and shikonin samples is of great importance. Oligomeric alkannin and shikonin are formed during biosynthesis of these bioactive secondary metabolites in Boraginaceaous root plants, during tissue culture
more &raquo; ... tion of A/S, during alkaline hydrolysis of A/S esters and also thermal treatment of A/S. In the present study, a dimeric alkannin/shikonin compound was isolated by size exclusion chromatography from alkannin and shikonin commercial samples and its structure was determined by one-and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the most abundant oligomeric species in these samples, a dimeric naphthoquinone, was established for the first time, indicating that coupling of the side chain of one naphthoquinone unit with the aromatic ring of a second naphthoquinone leads to dimer formation. This type of coupling allows further oligomerization by leaving one isohexenyl side chain available at the second monomer unit.
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="">doi:10.1002/bmc.470</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmid:15651092</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">fatcat:ftr2viubkjeuvkvfu5ob3jofd4</a> </span>
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