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AbstractThe probability of plunging orbits is enhanced in groups of galaxies and indeed, observations show that ring galaxies, which are believed to form when a galaxy passes through the center of a larger rotating disk, are often found in small groups. Numerical simulations combined with a knowledge of the large-scale H I distribution provide strong constraints on the dynamical history of these systems and on the identity of the intruder. Here we present a numerical model of the Cartwheeldoi:10.1017/s0252921100055111 fatcat:zzjz7ktszrbavjlvccxmai7au4