Architectural Modelling of Alternatives for Verification of New Interventions on the Example of the Romanesque Palace at Spiš Castle in Slovakia
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
The article presents the results of the first phase of the research project SK-VEGA 1/0951/16 on using transparent and translucent structures in historical buildings. The team of researchers from the Faculty of Architecture SUT Bratislava introduces possibilities of using lightweight roofs on the model example of a dominant medieval ruin (Romanesque Palace, Spiš Castle, UNESCO site). Architectural 3D-modelling of alternatives gains new methodical importance in conditions, when in real practice
... n in real practice only safeguarding conservation approaches are preferred. Research based on design serves as a tool for decision-making on further restoration approaches to a specific cultural heritage object. The selected Romanesque Palace of the Spiš Castle has passed through many structural periods. The interior doesn't exist and the perimeter walls create a raised landscape landmark. Romanesque, gothic and renaissance periods were identifiable. It would be possible to reconstruct these periods partially hypothetically on the basis of saved archive materials. Inner structures and the roofing of the palace were in individual historical periods changed. Exact frame models of a new roofing were created on the principle of hypothetical reconstruction: from the indication of the medieval form, renaissance form until contemporary new forms respecting the present day horizontal palace's topping. The aim of the first stage of the research was to present a few architectural alternatives of the roof structure refilling according to the given cultural heritage determinants and structural possibilities. We introduce 12 solutions in graphic and text, which present architectural models of a new roofing, covering the interior by transparent structure based on glass panels and translucent structures based on a textile membrane. We achieve a new space for new functional use of the palace by means of various ways of physical enclosing. On the other side, we work with alternatives of the perimeter wall perforation according to the historical periods. New inserted structures are designed in contemporary technologies and materials. An analysis of particular architectural proposals is the result. The shape, material selection (steel, timber), roof support structure selection and choice of transparent or translucent covering are subordinated to the architectural concept of the historical period's presentation including contemporaneousness. The solved problem was, how new interventions are able to visually coexist with historical original without diminishing its authenticity. Glazed and membrane structures used for covering authentic ruins request professional architectural modelling of alternatives based on exact historical facts. The decision making process is made easier by visualizations. Structural 2 shapes issued from original tectonic rules (standard, order) appear from the point of visual and also monument restoration criteria more favourable than structural shapes, which were not inspired by these rules. Plane shaped glazed roof shapes from this point of view seem to be more intrinsic than rounded. On the other side, alternatives with use of textile membranes have soft shape morphology, which is beneficial for new and also historic shapes of roofing in this researched example. Introduction The Spiš Castle is listed as Slovak National Cultural Heritage and it is also inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Romanesque Palace of the Spiš Castle has been selected as a suitable case study to demonstrate the possibilities of design of transparent and translucent roof structures depending on the restoration method and structural limits of the perimeter walls. The main aim has been to verify the two essential determining factors of architectural design of transparent and translucent roof structures in the case of ruins. The two main determining factors for the design are: restoration method and related shape of the roof structure and load-bearing limits of the walls of the ruin structure. The Romanesque Palace is a dominating component of the castle ensemble creating a landscape landmark. The Palace is situated on the perimeter of the ensemble in an exposed position over the rocky cliff which formed a part of the external fortification from the very beginning 'figure 1'. The Romanesque Palace had passed through many construction periods. Romanesque, gothic and renaissance periods had been identified and there is the possibility of their reconstruction -partially hypothetical -according to the archive materials. Roofs of the palace had in the individual periods been subject to significant changes. In the Romanesque period, the palace had two aboveground storeys covered by a butterfly shaped roof hidden behind horizontal topping. In the gothic period, the palace was covered by a gabled roof enclosed by a gable wall towards the castle grounds on the south side. In the Renaissance period, one storey was added and the palace was covered by a high hip roof with gull wings. Internal structures and related openings had been changed. In the Romanesque period, the gallery was appended and in the Gothic period, bays were appended to the palace. In the Renaissance period, one storey was added and the palace was covered by high hip roof with gull wings. Internal structures and related openings had been changed in particular period. A gallery was appended in the Romanesque period, and bays were appended to the palace in the Gothic period. In the Renaissance period, an existence of a third storey is evident. The openings of the windows in the perimeter walls had often been subject to changes of size, position and shape related to internal arrangements of the palace.