Priming Effects of Water Immersion on Paired Associative Stimulation-Induced Neural Plasticity in the Primary Motor Cortex
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
We aimed to verify whether indirect-wave (I-wave) recruitment and cortical inhibition can regulate or predict the plastic response to paired associative stimulation with an inter-stimulus interval of 25 ms (PAS25), and also whether water immersion (WI) can facilitate the subsequent PAS25-induced plasticity. To address the first question, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the M1 hand area, while alternating the direction of the induced current between posterior-to-anterior
... rior-to-anterior and anterior-to-posterior to activate two independent synaptic inputs to the corticospinal neurons. Moreover, we used a paired stimulation paradigm to evaluate the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI). To address the second question, we examined the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes before and after PAS25, with and without WI, and used the SAI, SICI, and MEP recruitment curves to determine the mechanism underlying priming by WI on PAS25. We demonstrated that SAI, with an inter-stimulus interval of 25 ms, might serve as a predictor of the response to PAS25, whereas I-wave recruitment evaluated by the MEP latency difference was not predictive of the PAS25 response, and found that 15 min WI prior to PAS25 facilitated long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity due to a homeostatic increase in cholinergic activity.