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Based on Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) El Niño alert system, this study investigates the atmospheric and oceanic conditions during El Niño developing years between 1982 and 2016. It is found that there is a 2–5-month lag to establish steady low-level atmospheric (or the Southern Oscillation Index, SOI) response than the steady El Niño-pattern Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (SSTA), which is defined as the critical period in this research. According to the duration of this criticaldoi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-181995/v1 fatcat:ehzwojxnjrag7bsehrb4fruqxy