Self-organized criticality

Per Bak, Chao Tang, Kurt Wiesenfeld
1988 Physical review. A, General physics  
We show that certain extended dissipative dynamical systems naturally evolve into a critical state, with no characteristic time or length scales. The temporal "fingerprint" of the self-organized critical state is the presence of flicker noise or 1/f noise; its spatial signature is the emergence of scaleinvariant (fractal) structure.
doi:10.1103/physreva.38.364 pmid:9900174 fatcat:wf6yw35fevdynmvxucjm3zrax4