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SHRAPNEL shells are manufactured either from bar stock or forgings. The bar stock method, however, Is not considered as satisfactory as forging because of pip ing, so that the greater number of shrapnel shells wade at the present time are turned out from forgings. The first step, therefore, in the making of a shrapnel is to cut off a billet of the required length from a bar of steel of the necessary constituents. In the making of an 18-pound shrapnel shell, the billet is cut off from a bar ofdoi:10.1038/scientificamerican07031915-12supp fatcat:mdomduztz5d7nlnebxg2bspaly