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The use of rare earth elements (REEs) is increasing, mainly due to the growing demand for electric vehicles and new applications in green technology. This results in annual growth of the in-use REE stocks and the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) products containing REEs. REEs are considered critical elements by the EU, mainly because the rest of the world is dependent on China's supply. Recycling of REEs can help alleviate the criticality of REEs, however, no REEs are currently functionallydoi:10.3390/su12010208 fatcat:pkg2zrryuvdxxk72rhspq3e4ce