Evaluating the energy consumed for water use in the United States

Kelly T Sanders, Michael E Webber
2012 Environmental Research Letters  
This letter consists of a first-order analysis of the primary energy embedded in water in the United States. Using a combination of top-down sectoral assessments of energy use together with a bottom-up allocation of energy-for-water on a component-wise and service-specific level, our analysis concludes that energy use in the residential, commercial, industrial and power sectors for direct water and steam services was approximately 12.3 ± 0.3 quadrillion BTUs or 12.6% of the 2010 annual primary
more » ... 010 annual primary energy consumption in the United States. Additional energy was used to generate steam for indirect process heating, space heating and electricity generation.
doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034034 fatcat:swbywmxzbzhulcjfycgy4mgln4