ON THE QUESTION OF ADJECTIVE QUALITY DEGREES IN THE UDMURT AND CHUVASH LANGUAGES
Yearbook of Finno-Ugric Studies
The Udmurt and Chuvash languages do not belong to the same family, however, when it comes to morphological categorisation, they are both classified as agglutinative. As a result of the historical development of the Udmurt and the Chuvash peoples, i.e. due to their long dwelling within the same geographical region, the Volga-Kama Sprachbund was formed, which also includes the Mari, Tatar and Bashkir languages. In these five languages typologically similar points are manifested on different
... stic levels, including morphology. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the degrees of comparison of the adjective in the Udmurt and Chuvash languages and hypothesise that the category of degrees of quality may be present in the Chuvash language. In Udmurt, along with degrees of comparison, adjective quality levels are also distinguished, which include three degrees: positive, moderative, and intensive. Semantically this category lacks the notion of comparison, instead it indicates the presence of a quality or feature of an object (or person) to a certain extent; positive expresses a neutral degree of quality. There are no special means for the formation of this word form, just as in the case with a positive degree of comparison, the grammatical indicator is the zero morpheme. The moderative expresses the incompleteness of quality, or its insufficiency; formed morphologically in Udmurt, using affixes -мыт, -алэс ( -ялэс ) , -пыр(ъем), -гес ( -гем ). The intensive shows the presence of the feature in a concentrated form, its prevalence; The highest degree of quality can be formed in two ways: analytically (using amplifier words) and synthetically (by reduplication of the adjective). In the Chuvash language, a completely identical situation is manifested: linguists note the presence of forms expressing quality, the notion of the attribute being incomplete or intensified, however, there are no opinions that a category of degrees of quality that is different from the degree of comparison would exist.