Developing Wax-Based Granule Formulations for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass
Journal of Economic Entomology
Oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a pest of turfgrass that may be controlled by applications of synthetic pheromone (Z)-/(E)-7-tetradecen-2-one to disrupt mating. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine release proÞles of pheromone from experimental wax-based granules, a proprietary wax granule, and rubber septa commonly used in pheromone traps. Rubber septa loaded with 10, 100, and 300 g per septum provided steady rates of pheromone
... (zero-order) over 4 wk of laboratory evaluation (total ϭ 1.1, 9.0, and 26.9 g/4 wk, respectively). Septa with 1,000 g per septum had a signiÞcant decline in the rate of pheromone release for this 4-wk exposure time (total ϭ 119 g/4 wk). A large proprietary wax granule (44 mg per granule, 25% wt:wt pheromone) provided a steady rate of pheromone release (total ϭ 2,347 g/4 wk per granule). Experimental granules (16 mg per granule) made of soywax with higher pheromone loads (10% wt:wt) approached zero-order release (steady state) (total ϭ 69 g/4 wk per granule), whereas smaller granules (4 mg per granule) with less pheromone (0.1% wt:wt) provided Þrst-order release proÞles (decreasing rate with longer exposure time) (total ϭ 0.35 g/4 wk per granule). A Þeld trial in turfgrass demonstrated the potential of selected granular formulations to provide effective mating disruption for up to 4 wk, as measured by pheromone trap shutdown. Documenting pheromone release proÞles for these experimental granules and rubber septa provides valuable information that will support future Þeld evaluations of mating disruption as a control strategy.