Nonlinear Observers for Predicting State-of-Charge and State-of-Health of Lead-Acid Batteries for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles
IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
This paper describes the application of state-estimation techniques for the real-time prediction of the state-of-charge (SoC) and state-of-health (SoH) of lead-acid cells. Specifically, approaches based on the well-known Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), are presented, using a generic cell model, to provide correction for offset, drift, and long-term state divergence-an unfortunate feature of more traditional coulomb-counting techniques. The underlying dynamic behavior of
... mic behavior of each cell is modeled using two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface, and end), from which the SoC is determined from the voltage present on the bulk capacitor. Although the structure of the model has been previously reported for describing the characteristics of lithium-ion cells, here it is shown to also provide an alternative to commonly employed models of lead-acid cells when used in conjunction with a KF to estimate SoC and an EKF to predict state-of-health (SoH). Measurements using real-time road data are used to compare the performance of conventional integration-based methods for estimating SoC with those predicted from the presented state estimation schemes. Results show that the proposed methodologies are superior to more traditional techniques, with accuracy in determining the SoC within 2% being demonstrated. Moreover, by accounting for the nonlinearities present within the dynamic cell model, the application of an EKF is shown to provide verifiable indications of SoH of the cell pack.