A mathematical analysis of adaptations to the metabolic fate of fructose in essential fructosuria subjects

Richard J. Allen, Cynthia J. Musante
2018 American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism  
Allen RJ, Musante CJ. A mathematical analysis of adaptations to the metabolic fate of fructose in essential fructosuria subjects. Fructose is a major component of Western diets and is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In response to an oral challenge, the majority of fructose is cleared during "first-pass" liver metabolism, primarily via phosphorylation by ketohexokinase (KHK). A rare benign genetic deficiency in KHK, called essential fructosuria (EF), leads to
more » ... (EF), leads to altered fructose metabolism. The only reported symptom of EF is the appearance of fructose in the urine following either oral or intravenous fructose administration. Here we develop and use a mathematical model to investigate the adaptations to altered fructose metabolism in people with EF. First, the model is calibrated to fit available data in normal healthy subjects. Then, to mathematically represent EF subjects, we systematically implement metabolic adaptations such that model simulations match available data for this phenotype. We hypothesize that these modifications represent the major metabolic adaptations present in these subjects. This modeling approach suggests that several other aspects of fructose metabolism, beyond hepatic KHK deficiency, are altered and contribute to the etiology of this benign condition. Specifically, we predict that fructose absorption into the portal vein is altered, peripheral metabolism is slowed, renal reabsorption of fructose is mostly ablated, and alternate pathways for hepatic metabolism of fructose are upregulated. Moreover, these findings have implications for drug discovery and development, suggesting that the therapeutic targeting of fructose metabolism could lead to unexpected metabolic adaptations, potentially due to a physiological response to high-fructose conditions. essential fructosuria; fructose metabolism; mathematical modeling
doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00317.2017 pmid:29664676 fatcat:wktd77k5r5fkbkj566dhkhjhxi