Dupilumab: basic aspects and applications to T2-mediated diseases
The asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), atopic dermatitis (AD), eosinophilic esophagitis and other diseases based on T2-inflammation are a widespread in the world. It has led to the development of genetically engineered drugs aimed at individual and specific components of inflammation. One of the leading positions in the pathogenesis of T2-mediated diseases is occupied by interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, which explains the prospects of studying these cytokines for the
... n of anti-IL-4/IL-13 monoclonal antibodies. The first immunobiological drug was registered to directe against the α subunit of the IL-4 receptor (IL-4Ra), common to both IL-4 and IL-4/IL-13 receptor complexes is dupilumab which is a fully human monoclonal antibody. Dupilumab targets the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα), common to both IL-4R complexes: type 1 (IL-4Rα/γc; IL-4 specific) and type 2 (IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1; IL-4 and IL-13 specific). Because the IL-4/IL-13/STAT6 signaling pathway plays a significant role in T2 inflammation. IL-4 and IL-13 are secreted by several cells and, along with other T2 cytokines, as well as with the participation of IL-33, IL-25 and TSLP can stimulate cells to further secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, contributing to the maintenance of the inflammatory process. Currently, dupilumab has been studied in at least 3,000 patients with asthma, AD, CRSwNP and eosinophilic esophagitis. The results of investigation show an acceptable safety profile in placebo-controlled studies worldwide. In this article, we have highlighted the results of numerous clinical studies and observations that have proven the effectiveness and safety of the use of dupilumab in asthma, AD, CRSwNP, prurigo, eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic pneumonia.