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The present study shows that the performance of CNN is not significantly different from the best classical methods and human doctors for classifying mediastinal lymph node metastasis of NSCLC from PET/CT images. Because CNN does not need tumor segmentation or feature calculation, it is more convenient and more objective than the classical methods. However, CNN does not make use of the import diagnostic features, which have been proved more discriminative than the texture features fordoi:10.1186/s13550-017-0260-9 pmid:28130689 pmcid:PMC5272853 fatcat:3uug5wfc6rgjlcbpuqfenn2zqu