161 Collegiate coaches' knowledge of and attitudes towards concussions
GDL laws differ across states as there are no federally required provisions. This study describes the distribution of the content of state GDL laws in relation to five key law elements: (1) curfew restrictions, (2) passenger restrictions, (3) drug/alcohol use, (4) traffic violations, and (5) cell phone usage. Methods A content analysis was conducted on all 50 US state GDL laws. State GDL laws were independently reviewed and analyzed by two coders. For each GDL law, the written language
... n language corresponding to each of the five key elements were coded based on the presence of the element in the state law: 1= present in state law or 0= absent in state law. Variation in the specific language used for the five key law elements across states were identified and described. Results Most state GDL laws included specific language in relation to curfew restrictions (98%), passenger restrictions (94%), and traffic violations (86%). Fewer state laws included specific language on drug/alcohol violations (52%) and cell phone usage (76%). We found great variation in the language used in relation to the five key law elements across states, with curfew times and penalties for traffic violations varying widely across states. Conclusion While all states have GDL laws, variations exist in the law elements included in state laws and the language used in these laws. Future research should examine how these variations in GDL laws may impact crash rates among young drivers. Significance and Contributions This study furthers our knowledge of the content and language used in GDL laws across states as well variations in these laws from state to state. Statement of Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine concussion knowledge and attitudes of NCAA coaches across Divisions I, II, & III. Methods/Approach Colleges from all three divisions of the NCAA were randomly selected based on the proportions of divisions represented (31% DI, 27% DII, 41% DIII). Coach and assistant coach of contact/collision or limited contact sports emails from selected colleges were obtained and sent a link to a survey which contained a concussion knowledge checklist (CK) (high scores indicate more knowledge of correct symptom identification), the Concussion Attitude Index (CAI) which measures attitudes about concussion reporting and management, and demographic questions. Results On average, coaches had CK scores of M= 16.7 (sd 5.3, range 0-25) and CAI scores of M= 168.5 (sd=13.4, range 121-190). There was a significant gender difference in CK, F(1,212) = 10.7, p=0.001, h2=0.048 with females indicating higher levels of knowledge (M=18.3, se=0.58) compared to males (M=15.9, se=0.46), but no gender difference in CAI. There were no significant differences in CAI or CK based on number of years collegiate coaching. Number of years collegiate coaching significantly predicted both CK F (1,198) = 3.98, p=0.048, R2=0.015 and CAI, F(1,182) = 8.85, p=0.003, R2=0.046 with more years coaching positively correlated with CAI (r(n=259)=0.19, p=0.01) and negatively correlated with CK, r(n=259)= -.18, p=0.01. Conclusion Coaches had relatively good knowledge of symptoms of concussion with some room for improvement. Female coaches had slightly higher knowledge scores. Years of coaching predicated attitudes and knowledge of symptoms, but contributed very little to the overall predictive model. Significance and Contributions to Injury and Violence Prevention Science Understanding of coaches' knowledge and attitudes towards concussion provides awareness of what coaches know and how they approach concussion which can inform policies, training, and educational programs.