Effect of Supplements on Endurance Exercise in the Older Population: Systematic Review
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ageing is associated with changes of physical and physiological parameters, but there is evidence that regular physical activity could minimize these effects. Additionally, the older population presents a great risk of suboptimal nutrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the evidence of nutritional strategies and endurance exercises in the older population. Methods: A systematic review was performed based on the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and
... iews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search was carried out in three different databases: PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus. Results: Eight studies were included in the present review. The use of caffeine and beta-alanine supplementation with proteins have been found to be beneficial in both sexes. In older women, a balanced diet, an increase in protein, supplementation with beta hydroxy methyl butyrate, and supplementation with sodium bicarbonate have been favorable. However, no benefit has been seen in older men with sodium bicarbonate or ubiquinone supplementation. Nevertheless, the use of supplements should be prescribed according to individual characteristics and physical activity. Conclusions: Caffeine and high protein supplement with beta-alanine may provide positive effects in the older population. In addition, in older women, bicarbonate supplementation and beta-hydroxyethyl butyrate (HMB), lysine, and arginine supplementation have shown positive effects on exercise performance.