Using Surface Methods to Understand the Ohaaki Hydrothermal Field, New Zealand [article]

Clinton Francis Rissmann, University Of Canterbury
After water vapour, CO₂ is the most abundant gas associated with magmatic hydrothermal systems. The detection of anomalous soil temperature gradients, and/or a significant flux of magmatic volatiles, is commonly the only surface signature of an underlying high temperature reservoir. For both heat (as water vapour) and gas to ascend to the surface, structural permeability must exist, as the unmodified bulk permeability of reservoir rock is too low to generate the focussed fluid flow typical of
more » ... d flow typical of magmatic hydrothermal systems. This thesis reports the investigation into the surface heat and mass flow of the Ohaaki hydrothermal field using detailed surface measurements of CO₂ flux and heat flow. Detailed surface measurements form the basis of geostatistical models that quantify and depict the spatial variability of surface heat and mass flow, across the surface of both major thermal areas, as high resolution pixel plots. These maps, in conjunction with earlier heat and mass flow studies, enable: (i) estimates of the pre-production and current CO₂ emissions and heat flow for the Ohaaki Field; (ii) interpretation of the shallow permeability structures governing fluid flow, and; (iii) the spatial relationships between pressure-induced ground subsidence and permeability. Heat flow and CO₂ flux surveys indicate that at Ohaaki the soil zone is the dominant (≥ 70% and up to 99%) pathway of heat and mass release to the atmosphere from the underlying hydrothermal reservoir. Modelling indicates that although the total surface heat and mass flow at Ohaaki is small, it is highly focused (i.e., high volume per unit area) relative to other fields within the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ). Normalised CO₂ emissions are comparable to other volcanic and hydrothermal fields both regionally and globally. Despite 20 years of production, there is little difference between pre-production and current CO₂ emission rates. However, the similarity of CO₂ emission rates masks a 40% increase in CO₂ emissions from new areas of intense steaming ground tha [...]
doi:10.26021/7492 fatcat:2micru32tjfvjifkze2kex34ru