Interaction of participants of urban freight consolidation of different levels
Management and Entrepreneurship Trends of Development
The purpose of this publication is generalization of research on the types of urban consolidation, classification of systems for urban freight consolidation by levels, consideration of participants at each level and schemes of their interaction, as well as analysis of direct and reverse flows that accompany this interaction. The works of domestic and foreign scientists on the problems of urban freight transportation and use of consolidation for their solving are the theoretical and
... al and methodological basis of the research. Data of official statistical and analytical materials of ministries and departments of Ukraine and world agencies made up the Information basis. When solving the tasks set, methods of economic analysis, systematization, generalization, comparison were applied. The results of the work are classifications of consolidation schemes for urban distribution, urban consolidation centers and their participants. Different levels of urban consolidation allow flexible application of the idea of consolidation to cities of various sizes and topologies, while reducing congestion and improving environmental situation in the city. The forward and reverse flows between various participants in the urban distribution system are evaluated. The prospect of the study is to consider the schemes of consolidation of different levels and an assessment of their economic and socio-ecological efficiency. The limitations of the results obtained are their applicability exclusively for urban areas and for consolidated transportation between cities. The presence of all levels of freight consolidation can be economically feasible only for cities with population of over 1 million inhabitants with corresponding long delivery distances. The practical significance of the study lies in the possibility of using the proposed classification and schemes of direct and reverse flows in the design of urban distribution schemes with the involvement of consolidation centers at various levels. 90 According to a study of Traffic Index -2018, in 2018 Kyiv is in the 13th place in the world in terms of traffic congestion. Kyiv's congestion bypassed Tokyo, Rome, London, New York, which are respectively at 25, 31, 40, 42 rating. Considering the lack of a municipality or government improvement program, the situation requires immediate and intent attention from researchers. Among the alternatives aimed at mitigating the negative external effects of freight traffic related to the concept of urban logistics, an urban consolidation center or city distribution center (UCC and UDC) can be proposed, which is an important factor for increasing efficiency of the logistics process in the city . With the increase in the size of the city, the duration of delivery also increases. The concept of consolidation in a large city with high traffic density plays a vital role . According to case studies in sustainable urban transport #10, published by GIZ GmbH, the main purpose of urban consolidation centers is to reduce the need for freight vehicles to deliver goods to urban areas (city center, an entire city or a specific large object such as a shopping center). For example, Browne et al (2011) describe an implementation of a micro-UDC in London where electric vans and tricycles arc used as delivery vehicles for the last mile delivery. With the new system in place, significant reductions on total distance (by 20%) and CO2equivalent emissions (by 54%) are reported although the distance per parcel rose by 349%.