Measurement of the wax appearance temperature in crude oil by laser scattering

J.N. McMullin, C.D. Eastman, C. Pulikkaseril, D. Adler
Engineering Solutions for the Next Millennium. 1999 IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (Cat. No.99TH8411)  
To assess the effect of micro-organisms on the reduction of wax appearance temperature (WAT) of waxy crude oil, some appropriate strains were obtained from contaminated samples exposed to hydrocarbon compounds for a long time. By conducting some screening tests, four strains were chosen and aerated in a bioreactor; they were then grown in some hydrocarbon environments in order to produce biological inhibitors. The ability of the biological inhibitors in wax deposition prevention or reduction of
more » ... ion or reduction of WAT is assessed. The WAT is determined by means of the optical absorption spectroscopy method. The absorption plots show that biological compounds are highly effective in reducing WAT; however, different strains are not of the same efficiency. In some cases, the efficiency of biological inhibitors is more than chemical inhibitors. The optimization experiments were run with the objective of achieving the maximum WAT reduction through the Taguchi design method, and the optimum cultivation condition was identified. According to the analysis of variance, pH with a contribution of 49.63% is the most influential factor on the cultivation of the most efficient micro-organisms. The factors of temperature, the inoculation fluid, and nitrogen concentrations are ranked after pH with the contributions of 32.39, 7.92, and 1.39% respectively. reduce wax deposition or remediate wax deposit. Very detailed schedules should be utilized to minimize the cost and frequency of mechanical pipeline cleaning operations like pigging [6] or a combination of several chemical and mechanical methods which are implemented to increase the wax removal efficiency [11] . Normally, efficient
doi:10.1109/ccece.1999.804983 fatcat:gnqi7macmbhu7bifmywnfvc2lq