Three-dimensional FDTD analysis of a pulsed microwave confocal system for breast cancer detection: design of an antenna-array element
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
We are investigating a new ultrawide-band (UWB) microwave radar technology to detect and image early-stage malignant breast tumors that are often invisible to X rays. In this paper, we present the methodology and initial results of three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The discussion concentrates on the design of a single resistively loaded bowtie antenna element of a proposed confocal sensor array. We present the reflection, radiation, and scattering
... scattering properties of the electromagnetic pulse radiated by the antenna element within a homogeneous, layered half-space model of the human breast and the polarization and frequencyresponse characteristics of generic tumor shapes. We conclude that the dynamic range of a sensor array comprised of such elements in conjunction with existing microwave equipment is adequate to detect small cancerous tumors usually missed by X-ray mammography.