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Mangrove forests, as one of the most productive coastal ecosystems in tropical and subtropical areas, provide multiple valuable ecosystem services for human well-being. Mangrove coverage has been declining dramatically across much of developing regions due to extensive coastal anthropogenic disturbances such as reclamation, aquaculture, and seawall construction. As coastal human activities increase, there is urgent need to understand not only the direct loss, but also the vulnerability ofdoi:10.1101/2021.04.17.440255 fatcat:3l64euao7ncvxn5kydjq6rfd5e