Integrated effects of bacteria and fungi biofertilizers on morphological traits, antioxidants indices, and polyphenol compounds of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under salinity condition
It is imperative to assess the potential of halophyte plant species, such as quinoa, in resisting high salinity levels in arid and semi-arid regions where the productivity of crops is dramatically affected. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted to explore the effect of integrated biofertilizer, on morphological traits, antioxidants, and polyphenol compounds of quinoa under salinity stress. The studied factors included NaCl salinity
... uded NaCl salinity stress at three levels of 0, 150, and 300 mM (S0, S150, and S300, respectively), Trichoderma (T) fungus at two levels (its use and non-use), and biofertilizer at three levels (control, nitrogen (FN), and phosphorus (FP). The means of the studied traits showed that the highest shoot length and dry weight was related to S0T0FN, the highest root length to S150TFN, the highest root dry weight to S0T0FN, and the highest phenol and flavonoid contents to S300TFP and S0TFN treatments. Among polyphenols, the highest caffeic acid, rutin, coumaric acid, and quercetin were observed in S0TFP, and the highest levels of chlorogenic, rosmarinic, cinnamic acids, and apigenin (mg/kg) were observed in S0TFN. To sum up, Bacteria and fungi biofertilizers were effective on the studied traits at the three salinity levels.