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Physics of Plasmas
Rotating asymmetric electric fields have been applied to control the rotation frequency ͑and hence the density͒ of non-neutral plasmas, which are confined in Penning-type traps and have relaxed close to thermal equilibrium characterized by a global rigid-body rotation. "Infinite" confinement times and density compression were first reported for uncorrelated plasmas of ϳ10 8 Mg ϩ ions with temperatures ranging from 1 K to 5ϫ10 4 K (4 eV͒ ͓Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 875 ͑1997͔͒. In thisdoi:10.1063/1.872834 fatcat:hg2xfjydhjhqbbgsbo2wrpkrpu