Stigmatization and discrimination of patients with chronic hepatitis C

Marina Kostic, Biljana Kocic, Branislav Tiodorovic
2016 Vojnosanitetski Pregled  
Background/Aim. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is often associated with injectable drug users and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection for which there is stigmatization in society. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of stigma and discrimination of patients with CHC, as well as the influence of sociodemographic factors on the occurrence of stigmatization. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed. Patients with CHC and conducted antiviral therapy completed an anonymous
more » ... red questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic questions and Hepatitis C stigma scale. Results. Out of 154 patients 61.7% were male and 72.1% from the city; 59.7% have completed secondary school; 61.7% were employed before the disease while 31.8% after the disease; 45.5% were unsatisfactory with financial situation; 54.5% were married; 37.7% lived with a spouse and children; 86.4% in their own house/apartment; 5.2% of the patients were abandoned by their partners, while 35.7% consumed drugs. A statistical significance of the stigma score was found in those who lived in the city (p = 0.018), unmarried (p = 0.005), abandoned by the partners after the diagnosis of CHC (p < 0.001), drug users (p = 0.002) and those living with parents (p = 0.034). Univariate regression analysis singled out as significant: residence (p = 0.018), living with their parents (p = 0.046), abandonment by a partner (p < 0.001) and drug use (p = 0.002). A multivariate regression model of independent variables singled out abandonment by partners (Beta = 5.158, p = 0.007). Men disagree significantly with the two elements inside stigma [not the same as the others (p = 0.035)] and hurt by the reaction of others (p = 0.047)). Conclusion. The presence of stigma in patients with CHC was proven. The results indicate the need to strengthen anti-stigma programs that will reduce their psychological and social problems and reduce stigmatization in society. Apstrakt Uvod/Cilj. Hronični hepatitis C (HHC) često se povezuje sa korisnicima droga koji ih injektiraju i sa koinfekcijom virusom humane imunodeficijencije kod kojih postoji stigmatizacija u društvu. Cilj ove studije bio je da se identifikuje prisustvo stigmatizacije i diskriminacije obolelih od HHC, i ispita uticaj sociodemografskih faktora na pojavu stigmatizacije. Metode. Ova studija preseka obuhvatila je ispitanike sa HHC i sprovedenom antivirusnom terapijom koji su anonimno popunjavali strukturisani upitnik sastavljen od sociodemografskih pitanja i hepatitis C stigma skale. Rezultati. Od ukupno 154 ispitanika, 61,7% bilo je muškog pola, 72,1% iz grada, 59,7% sa srednjom školom, 61,7% radilo je pre bolesti, a posle 31,8%, 45,5% je bio nezadovoljavajućeg materijalnog stanja, 54,5% oženjeno/udato, u zajednici sa supružnikom i decom 37,7%, u sopstvenoj kući/stanu 86,4%. Partner je napustio 5,2% obolelih, dok je drogu konzumiralo 35,7% ispitanika. Statistička značajnost stigma skora nađena je kod bolesnika koji su živeli u gradu (p = 0,018), neoženjenih/neudatih (p = 0,005), ostavljenih od strane partnera posle dijagnostikovanja HHC (p < 0,001), korisnika droga (p = 0,002) i onih koji su živeli sa roditeljima (p = 0,034). Univarijantnom regresionom analizom izdvojeni su, kao statistički značajni: prebivalište (p = 0,018), život sa roditeljima (p = 0,046), napuštanje od strane partnera (p < 0,001) i upotreba droge (p = 0,002). Multivarijantnim regresionim modelom nezavisnih varijabli, kao značajno izdvojeno je napuštanje od strane partnera (Beta = 5,158, p = 0,007). Muškarci se značajno nisu slagali sa dva elementa unutrašnje stigme (nije isti kao drugi -p = 0,035 i povređeni reakcijom drugih -p = 0,047)). Zaključak. Utvrđeno je prisustvo stigmatizacije kod obolelih od HHC. Rezultati ukazuju na potrebu jačanja antistigma programa koji će umanjiti psihičke i socijalne probleme kod obolelih od HHC i sniziti njihovu stigmatizaciju u društvu. Ključne reči: hepatitis c; hepatitis, hronični; socijalna stigma; socioekonomski faktori; ankete i upitnici.
doi:10.2298/vsp150511135k pmid:29341568 fatcat:wqdxklh7lfh5bbgzsuvrhv4a7y