Leaf anatomy of Cyperus species growing in different soils of Punjab Pakistan
Pure and Applied Biology
Cyperaceae also called the Sedge-family is the third-largest monocot family. They have a cosmopolitan distribution with a wide variety of habitats such as steep slopes, high altitude, extreme aridity, extreme salinity, swamps, marshes, and moist areas. In this study, the transverse sections of leaves of different species of the genus Cyperus were collected from different regions of Punjab including Faisalabad, Chiniot, Jarhanwala, Sahianwala, KalarKahar, Khabeki Lake, Pakkana, and Balloki. The
... , and Balloki. The soil samples and leaf sections were analyzed for the adaptations in leaf anatomy in different soils of Punjab. This analysis demonstrated diverse modifications in the leaf area; thickness of vascular bundles; altered phloem and metaxylem cell area; sclerenchyma, collenchyma, and aerenchyma thickness; and variations in upper and lower epidermal cell area and the number of stomata on both sides of the epidermis, etc. based on the soil structure and composition in different regions of Punjab. The modifications were proportional to the accelerated survival and growth rate of the species in that region. Sedges are present in different environment such as degraded soil, hyper-saline waters, dry land salinity; however, many are related to Lakes or soils. The anatomical structures of various plant parts are seen as an adaptation to the ecological habitat of certain plants. It was therefore believed that indigenous species of the Cyperaceous family may have evolved specific leaf anatomy which has permitted them to live under severe environmental conditions such as drought and salinity.