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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to analyze 4-META resin and enamel that are debonded at an adhesive interface. The XPS spectra showed two chemical states for Ca: one resulted from Ca of hydroxyapatite and the other, an unknown chemical state, suggested that Ca was chemically bonded with 4-META. We postulate that for a chemical reaction of 4-META and hydroxyapatite, the chemical structure of carboxyl groups will resemble that of calcium phthalate. Hence, calcium phthalate was useddoi:10.4012/dmj.2020-229 pmid:33518686 fatcat:7gc4ap2o6rb4ppekzmbn6uaiqm