Developmental Changes in Food Balance during Breakfast, Lifestyle, and Indefinite Complaints from First Grade to Sixth Grade in Elementary School

Manami Nagahara, Masanori Ohta, Yoko Umeki, Akiko Nanri, Hitomi Hayabuchi
2020 The Japanese Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics  
Objective: The purpose of this six-year follow-up study was to clarify developmental changes in children's food balance during breakfast, lifestyle, and indefinite complaints in elementary school. Furthermore, we studied how children's lifestyle and indefinite complaints were related to food balance during breakfast. Methods: The subjects were recruited in 2011 from among first graders (n=91), and follow-up surveys were carried out every year for six years. Results: The percentage of children
more » ... o skipped breakfast was 3-5% for grades 1-4 and 11-14% for grades 5 and 6. The percentage of children who ate meals with adults decreased with higher grade levels. Furthermore, a balance of grain, fish and meat, and vegetable dishes for breakfast was followed most by first-graders, while the eating of "only staple foods" increased in the upper grades. With regard to wake-up times and getting up by themselves, the improvement in the upper grades was not remarkable. Among sixth-graders, 53% went to bed after 22:00 hours, 90% felt tired, and 63% felt that school was "unpleasant." Food balance during breakfast was related to wake-up times, bedtimes, co-eating, help received, fatigue, and dislike of school. Conclusions: The study suggests that active intervention is needed in lower grades to establish a desirable lifestyle and in upper grades to reeducate students about the importance of breakfast and good sleep, and to support them regarding their indefinite complaints. Jpn. J. Nutr. Diet., 78 (4) 131~142 (2020)
doi:10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.78.131 fatcat:5kbn4ubwqvhvthkxcmoetr6dkq