Metal and Metalloid Toxicity in Plants: An Overview on Molecular Aspects

Paola I. Angulo-Bejarano, Jonathan Puente-Rivera, Rocío Cruz-Ortega
2021 Plants  
Worldwide, the effects of metal and metalloid toxicity are increasing, mainly due to anthropogenic causes. Soil contamination ranks among the most important factors, since it affects crop yield, and the metals/metalloids can enter the food chain and undergo biomagnification, having concomitant effects on human health and alterations to the environment. Plants have developed complex mechanisms to overcome these biotic and abiotic stresses during evolution. Metals and metalloids exert several
more » ... s exert several effects on plants generated by elements such as Zn, Cu, Al, Pb, Cd, and As, among others. The main strategies involve hyperaccumulation, tolerance, exclusion, and chelation with organic molecules. Recent studies in the omics era have increased knowledge on the plant genome and transcriptome plasticity to defend against these stimuli. The aim of the present review is to summarize relevant findings on the mechanisms by which plants take up, accumulate, transport, tolerate, and respond to this metal/metalloid stress. We also address some of the potential applications of biotechnology to improve plant tolerance or increase accumulation.
doi:10.3390/plants10040635 pmid:33801570 fatcat:icbsvqarwjbevfjjpph72qq2yi