Zero-knowledge against quantum attacks

John Watrous
2006 Proceedings of the thirty-eighth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing - STOC '06  
It is proved that several interactive proof systems are zero-knowledge against general quantum attacks. This includes the Goldreich-Micali-Wigderson classical zero-knowledge protocols for Graph Isomorphism and Graph 3-Coloring (assuming the existence of quantum computationally concealing commitment schemes in the second case). Also included is a quantum interactive proof system for a complete problem for the complexity class of problems having honest verifier quantum statistical zero-knowledge
more » ... cal zero-knowledge proofs, which therefore establishes that honest verifier and general quantum statistical zero-knowledge are equal: QSZK = QSZK HV . Previously no non-trivial interactive proof systems were known to be zero-knowledge against quantum attacks, except in restricted settings such as the honest-verifier and common reference string models. This paper therefore establishes for the first time that true zero-knowledge is indeed possible in the presence of quantum information and computation.
doi:10.1145/1132516.1132560 dblp:conf/stoc/Watrous06 fatcat:t7zoaapdjbhqfjodg4dsyj56va